Ways to Maximise Metal Hose Service Life

fig.1-1

 

 

Metal hose installation should follow a proper guideline to ensure its optimum lifetime performance and minimize risk to workers and equipment. This blog aims to highlight some necessary steps that aids in maximising your hose life, especially in metal hoses.

1. Proper Hose Length

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Metal hose assembly should have more length than its port to port distance as hose can elongate and contract when pressurized. The contraction will add more stress to the assembly and might lead to catastrophic failure such as leak, loose fitting and hose failure. In addition, having too much length will also give adverse effect as it might introduce new problems such as hose abrasion and uncontrolled hose movements.

2. Proper Placement

fig.3-1

Proper placement can prolong metal hose life significantly. Below are the correct ways to place your hose:

1. Avoid Stacking – Avoid adding extra load such as valve or piping onto your hose as it might crush the hose underneath.

2. Store it Safely – Make sure your hose is installed away from potential risk and hazards that can damage the hose (e.g heat, chemical or corrosion).

 

3. Protection Against Extreme Temperature Change

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Extreme temperature can cause tears and cracks to your hose. Avoid direct contact between the hose and heat source or use additional protection such as protective sleeves to protect your hose.

4. Avoid Torque

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When your metal hose is torqued/twisted, it has a higher chance of failure as hose is not designed to withstand torsional force. During installation, use swivel fitting on one end and fixed end on the other end and always make sure the assembly has only one plane of flexing to avoid torsional stress. In addition, proper tightening will eliminate torque movement during the hose operation.

5. Avoid Over or Sharp Bending

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Bending metal hose into a radius smaller than its Minimum Bending Radius (MBR) could result in hose failure. Provide enough length, use elbow/pipe bend to avoid sharp bend and use support such as a suspension to avoid hose sagging. Check bending radius on datasheet before installing.

6. Avoid Abrasion

bumpy-road

Hose abrasion occurs because of constant contact between hose and abrasive surface. It can lead to hose failure as it gradually weakens the hose’s pressure retention. Introduce external protective cover such as spring guard, metal guard, etc to help minimize the friction or avoid dragging the hose on a rough surface to avoid abrasion.

7. Avoid Axial Overextension and Compression

fig-11-12

Hose should not be stretched or compressed along its longitudinal axis. Axial overextension and over compression will damage the hose as it is not designed for in-line axial movement. Add a support to properly guide the hose routing or install the hose perpendicular to the direction of the movement.

8. Proper Grounding

Some fluid may contain solid impurities that if it is constantly rubbing the hose, it will create an electric charge on the hose surface. Establish a proper grounding route to prevent electrical discharge to the workers or equipment in near proximity of the hose.

9. Maintain Hose Cleanliness

shower

Impurities such as debris, dust, rust and abrasive particles will accumulate during assembly step and after usage. The impurities can lead to serious wear and tear damage to the Stainless-Steel hose; therefore, immediate cleaning after assembly and after usage are highly recommended. The cleaning is done by flushing or rinsing all the impurities by using cleaning media such as:

  • Strong compress air blast
  • Sponge-like projectiles
  • Cleaning liquids

Final Word

More? Please contact us at (65) 6298 3211 or enquiry@wahjooseng.com. Click here to check our hose collections or general hose installation guidelines.

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Function of Stainless Steel Braids

wjs-hose-braid

Stainless steel hose braid serves as the “flexing muscle” to resist internal and external pressure and to provide protection against abrasion and contamination When compared to non-braided hose, braided hose can prevent longitudinal expansion and protect the hose’s shape and flexibility (Wikipedia, 2018). It is also highly flexible and can mould itself to follow the movement of the hose  (S. Hasan, 2018).

CHOICES

Stainless steel hose braids come in a variety of choices that caters to specific needs or applications. Materials available upon request includes:

  • 304L, 316L and 321 Stainless Steel
  • Bronze
  • Monel 400
  • Hastelloy C276
  • Inconel alloy 625

BRAID LAYERS

Multiple layers of braid are frequently used to enhance the strength and coverage of hose assembly (The Association for Hose and Accessories Distribution, 2015); Hence, hose with more braid layer is used for high-pressure application. Below chart shows the working pressure of different number of braid layers:

kingflex-p3

However, the weight of the assembly shall increase with the number of braid layers. Check out the application’s pressure requirement to make sure you use the right number of braids.

TELL ME MORE

Wah Joo Seng provides customised quality braided metal hose assemblies in an assortment of materials, sizes, braid layers and various types of end connections to suit different applications. Our assemblies are painstakingly done locally in-house. Drop us an email at enquiry@kingflex.com or call+65 62983211 to find out more. We love to hear from you!

Looking for more? Browse through our products here or check out more of our stainless-steel hose articles

 

The Everything Hose. Almost.

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With so many types of hoses that are available in the market, choosing a right hose that suits your application can be a mind boggling and/or fogging issue. PVC? Rubber? Fabric? Composite? Metal? Pipes? Wire? Non-wired? Suction or Delivery? WHAT!?

There is not a definite RIGHT type of hose to use or purchase, it all boils down to what application are you going to use it with.

Stainless steel hoses remain a very popular choice for fluid transfer or control applications. They are used in a wide range of industries such as food processing, biomedical, oil and gas, chemical plants etc. They are available in several different grades/alloys to better suit different applications.

So, when do you really need metal hoses? Consider these criteria below when choosing a metal hose:

1. Stainless Steel Hose has Good Mechanical Properties

Stainless Steel hose has good versatility, durability and outstanding price-to-quality ratio. As a metal, it is tough, malleable, formable, strong and modifiable; it is also a good fit for extreme pressure and temperature applications and to protect plant and worker from harm and potential catastrophic failure.

metal-hose-properties

Above charts compare the properties of one of our Stainless-Steel hose (Kingflex® Series P3 with single braid) to the average property value of various rubber and PVC hoses. Clearly, both charts show that Stainless Steel hose has a much better mechanical properties than rubber or a PVC hose type.

Mechanical properties of Stainless-Steel hoses can be enhanced by layers of braids, pitch and wall thickness.

2. Stainless Steel Hose has excellent Chemical Resistance Properties

Stainless steel is a chemical resistance metal that can convey corrosive chemicals. This special property serves as one of the main driving factors for its high demand.

Different from normal steel/carbon steel, Stainless Steel has a 1-3nm (Hedberg & Wallinder, 2016) thin passive oxide layer that protects the underlying iron (Fe) from being oxidised. The special layer creates the chemical resistance property of the stainless steel we know (Brytan, 2016).

chemical-resistance

If we compare Stainless Steel’s chemical resistance to Carbon Steel, the metal has more A and B and less C and D rating than Carbon Steel (CS). This shows that Stainless Steel has better chemical resistance than Carbon Steel (Habonim, 2013).

3. Stainless Steel Hose Does Not Allow Gas Permeation

Gas permeation is the penetration of a gas through a solid. Stainless Steel and metal hose are not susceptible to gas permeation. This property is important if the gas media needs to be contained or if high purity product is desired. The rate of permeation depends on the size of the gas molecule; smaller gas molecule will have a faster permeation rate.

4. Stainless Steel Hose Handles Full Vacuum

Stainless Steel Hose can maintain its shape and form in the event of suction/vacuum. Non-metal hoses typically will collapse in negative pressure and in the absence of support. Hose collapse will damage the hose and risk the safety of the workers and surrounding amenities.

5. Stainless Steel Hose Has Great Flexibility

Stainless Steel Hose can incorporate any type and configuration of weldable fitting into their assembly while other hose types might require some special shanks or ferrule. This benefit can simplify the assembly, increase its pressure rating and reduce potential leakage points.

6. Stainless Steel Does Not Build Static Discharge

Since Stainless Steel is a strong conductor, it does not build-up static charge. This provide greater safety for the metal hose as static charge can be easily grounded (Production Automation Corporation, n.d.). Non-conductive hose like rubber hose hinders the electron flow, allowing it to accumulate and be discharged. Static discharge might be lethal depending on the situation.

With so many advantageous traits to it, stainless steel hose does sound like it is ALMOST a everything hose. But oh wait, WHEN AND WHERE NOT TO USE stainless steel hoses?

BONUS. When and Where Not Use Stainless Steel Hose

Stainless steel is still a metal alloy, which can corrode especially in chloride and reducing environment (Hedberg & Wallinder, 2016).The introduction of reducing agent will attack the passive layer which will lead to local corrosion such as pitting or crevice corrosion.

It is best to avoid using SS Hose when it is in a reducing environment such as with Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), condensed molten salt, alkali sulphate and alkali chlorides.

Stainless Steel grade for example in the case of SS316 introduces new elements: Molybdenum (Mo) or Nickel (Ni) that offers protection in reducing environment and a better chemical resistant property for the respective grade. Other grade that does not introduce these elements like SS304 however will have lower chemical resistance (The International Nickel Company, 1982).

TELL ME MORE

Wah Joo Seng provides customised high quality braided metal hose assemblies in an assortment of materials, sizes, braid layers and various types of end connections to suit different applications. Our assemblies are painstakingly done locally in-house. Drop us an email at enquiry@kingflex.com or call+65 62983211 for a non-binding, personalized metal hose solution. We love to hear from you!

Looking for more? Browse through our products here .

Types of Flange Facings

 

In our previous blog, we talked about the most common flange types used in the industry. Today, we would like to discuss on another important aspect of a flange – flange face. Understanding flange faces plays a crucial role to ensure that the right fit, right gasket and safety can be applied.

Flange face is the surface where contact between two flanges occur. A sealing component is generally introduced between the mating surface, such as metal or gasket. Below is a compilation of flange facing types that are commonly recognized in the market.

1.     FLAT FACE (FF)

Flat Face

As its names suggest, flat face flange has a flat face. This means that the gasket seat is on the same plane as bolting circle face. Flat face allows full contact across the whole face of the two mating flanges and uses full face gasket. Flat Face flange is used for equipment made from cast iron or other brittle materials hence is only applicable for low temperature and low-pressure applications. It is important to only mate flat face flange with flat face flange and not a raised face.

2.      RAISED FACE (RF)

Raised Face

Most widely used flange. Raised face flange has a small raised ring area around the bore where the gasket will be seated. Raised face flange can concentrate more pressure on a smaller gasket area and increases the seal and flange’s joint pressure containment capability. Raised face is typically used for equipment made from forged steel.

The height of the raised face depends on the flange’s pressure class rating. Pressure class 150 and 300 will have the height of raised face approximately 1.6mm (1/16 inch) while pressure class 400, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500 will have the height raised to approximately 6.4mm (1/4 inch).

3.     RING TYPE JOINT FACE (RTJ)

RTJ Flange

Ring type joint (RTJ) flange has an embedded circular grove on its raised face where gasket will seat. When two RTJ flanges are bolted and tightened together, the gasket inside the flange groove will be compressed and will form a tight metal to metal seal. Other benefit of RTJ flange is that the raised face protects the gasket from over compression. RTJ flange has a good pressure and temperature resistance and used for highly demanding applications.

RTJ uses a metallic sealing ring gasket that is suitable for high pressure and high temperature. The gasket comes in either oval or octagonal cross-sectional area. The latter has a better sealing property than the former but only applicable for latest flange design.

4.     TONGUE & GROOVE (T&G)

Tongue and Groove Flange

Tongue and groove (T&G) flange consist of two parts: tongue and groove. The tongue has a raised surface while the groove has a matching depression (groove) machined to its face. Both parts need to be matched to seal connection. Tongue and groove can self-align and has a good sealing property.

5.     MALE & FEMALE FACE (M&F)

Male and Female Flange

Male and Female face (M&F) has similar design with T&G except that its raised surface and groove’s ID extend into the bore hole. The male face is commonly mistaken as a raised face due to their similarities. The typical depth of the female groove is 3/16 inch while the typical height of the male raised face is ¼ inch.

Both tongue and groove and male and female have good sealing and accurate gasket compression. Their downside is their high cost due to lack of commercial availability.

FINAL WORD

If you are looking for any flanges, you may want to contact us at (65) 6298 3211 or enquiry@wahjooseng.com. Wah Joo Seng can assemble, deliver and supply our hose assemblies with flanges!  Check out our flange collections here!

REFERENCES, IMAGE CREDITS & SOURCE:

https://hardhatengineer.com/

http://www.wermac.org/flanges/flanges_welding-neck_socket-weld_lap-joint_screwed_blind.html

https://www.eng-tips.com/viewthread.cfm?qid=191786

Flanges Like No Other

Flanges are used in many industries as a quick and economical joint for easy access, cleaning or modification for their equipment or lines. PVC, Carbon Steel, Cast Iron and Stainless Steel are commonly used materials in modern pipe infrastructure. However, the demand for better material has been increasing since the 1930s to fulfil the call for flanges with high level of corrosion resistance and functionality.

In order to address specific concerns especially for applications such as;

  • Chlor-Alkali
  • Bleaches
  • Solvents
  • Acid
  • Caustic

Wah Joo Seng is pleased to present our latest revolutionary flange that performs like no other – Durcor® flanges. These made in U.S.A flanges are proven to be the strongest, lightest and most chemically resistant. This flange combines the benefits of PVC, PTFE and steel. It gives you maximum protection while helping you to save more in the long run.

Durcor® Composite Flange
Durcor® flange is by far the strongest, lightest and most chemically resistant flange.

Lightweight

Durcor® is as light as plastic
You don’t have to break a sweat while carrying Durcor® products.

A special composite compound is at the core of Durcor® flanges, making them featherlight that aids in easy transportation and installation. Durcor® flange weighs similarly to PVC flange and just a fourth of the weight of stainless steel or carbon steel flanges.

Durcor® is relatively lighter when compared to other flanges
Flanges Weight Comparison Chart

 

Chemical Resistant

Durcor®’s backbone material, vinyl ester resin, can withstand aggressive chemicals and hostile atmospheres such as acid sprays, bleach, salt water and chlorides. Durcor®’s chemical resistance outperforms stainless and ductile iron flanges in both corrosive and non-corrosive environment.

Durcor® vs Carbon Steel Flange
16 hr exposure to 3:1 HCL/HNO3 bottom flange submerged

Durcor® chemical resistance test result
Result after 16 hours

Strength

Durcor® has tensile and compressive strength that is comparable to steel; followed by an outstanding impact resistance, Durcor® flange is claimed to be virtually indestructible. Its reinforcing fibers are long and interlocked which allows a systematic load distribution throughout the entire matrix when it is pressurized. Durcor® flange is 8 times stronger than PVC flange and just a slightly less than stainless steel or carbon steel. Furthermore, Durcor® flanges are ANSI B16.5 classified and available in Class 150lbs or Class 300lbs ratings.

Durcor® Tensile Strength Comparison
Tensile Strength Comparison

Other Benefits

Made is USA

Durcor® is made by following US standard
Durcor® Flange is Made in USA

Durcor® flanges are made according to U.S. strict manufacturing standard, using top quality raw materials.

Wide Temperature Range

Durcor® flange has a working temperature range of -60oF to 300oF (-50 oC to 150 oC). Making it suitable for a wide range of application.

Cost Reduction

Though Durcor® is higher in capital costs, their cost-efficiency benefits outweigh the cost in the long run thanks to their unique features.  Benefits of using Durcor® flanges include eliminating the need to install additional support, no painting required, zero corrosion rate, reduce the costs of maintenance, transportation, installation and prolonging service life.

Durcor® Total Cost Comparison
Total Cost Comparison of Durcor® vs other Flanges

Durcor®’s flange type

Our Durcor® Lap Joint flanges are available in Class 150lbs or Class300lbs. Lap Joint flange allows for quick bolthole alignment of the mating flange during installation without taking the extra precautions required during prefabrication of a welded flange.

If you’d like to learn more about different types of flanges, check our blog here.

If you are interested in Durcor® flanges and or pipes, call us at (65) 6298 3211 or drop us an email at kingflex@wahjooseng.com.

Looking for other things? Check out our website here.