Types of Flanges

Flange connection is one of the most commonly used joining method in the industry to connect pipes, valves, pumps, hoses and other equipment. It is often chosen because it is simple and convenient to use. Flange connections provide easy access for cleaning, inspection or modification. Connection or joint is made when two flange faces are aligned, brought together and tightened with bolts and nuts. Below is the detailed breakdown of a flange connection.

Flanges diagram

Based on the diagram above, flange connection can be broken down simply into flange faces, gasket and bolts & nuts.

Choice of flanges is largely dependable on;

  • Types/Standards ASME B16.5 and/or B16.47 etc.
  • Contact Surfaces (Raised Face, Flat Face, Ring Type Joint and etc)
  • Pressure Ratings (150lbs, 300lbs, 400lbs, 600lbs, 1500lbs and 2500lbs)
  • Design Temperature
  • Materials (Forged steel, Stainless steel, PVC, Special Materials)
  • Sizes and Wall Thickness (Schedule)

TYPES OF COMMONLY USED FLANGES

Lap Joint Flange

Lap Joint Flanges

Lap joint flange consists of 2 main parts: stub end and loose flange. The stub end will be welded to the pipe/fitting while loose flange will slip over the pipe and roam freely. Lap joint flange provides great flexibility for the assembly as it has the freedom to swivel and It is easy to line up.

Lap joint flange is suitable for application that requires frequent dismantling and lower pressure.

Weld Neck Flange

Weld Neck Flanges

Weld neck flange is characterized with a long-tapered neck/hub which then strongly welded with pipe. The neck/hub grows wider from the welded end to the flange face. Because the bore of both the pipe and hub matches, creating a seamless flow path, erosions and turbulences can be greatly reduced. Weld neck flange is a great fit for higher pressure and higher temperature application.

The downside of weld neck flange is that it is bulkier and relatively higher in cost.

Socket Weld Flange

Socket Welded Flanges

Socket weld flange has a female socket inside its bore hole as the resting place for the inserted hose. Socket weld flange is suitable for low pressure and low temperature application. A gap of 1/16” (shown by x) between the hose end and the socket needs to be maintained to reduce residual stress that could occur during solidification of the weld metal. The flange and the hose will then be welded together.

Slip-On Flange

Slip On Flanges

Similar like socket weld flange, slip-on flange has a bore hole in which hose can slip-on. The only different is that slip-on flange does not have a female socket for the hose to rest. Slip-on flange has lower strength when compared to weld neck flange.

Blind Flange

Blind Flanges

Blind flange entirely blank off the hose end to terminate the fluid flow and isolate the piping system. Blind flange is applicable for high pressure.

Threaded Flange

Threaded Flanges

Threaded flange uses thread to secure the connection between the hose and the flange. It is fast, simple and easy to assemble or disassemble.

However, threaded flange is only applicable for low pressure and the threaded pipe needs to be relatively thicker to form the thread to screw on.

In Summary

Types of Flanges Characteristics
Lap Joint Flange ·         Consists of stub end and lap joint flange

·         Flange can roam and rotate freely

·         Applicable for low pressure

·         Easy to install and dismantle

·         Flange does not touch the fluid, hence can be salvaged

Weld Neck Flange ·         Long tapered neck/hub as a strong support

·         Suitable for higher pressure and temperature

·         Bulky and relatively costlier

Socket Welded Flange ·         Slip in bore hole in the centre

·         Bore hole has a female socket in which a pipe is fitted

·         Applicable for low pressure and temperature application

Slip-On Flange ·         Slip in bore hole in the centre

·         Applicable for low pressure

Blind Flange ·         Blank off end to terminate flow

·         Applicable for high pressure.

Threaded Flange ·         Threading inside of flange bore hole

·         Hose has thick wall thickness

·         Easy to connect/disconnect

·         Applicable for low pressure

Final Word

If you are looking for any of these flanges, you may like to contact us at (65) 6298 3211 or enquiry@wahjooseng.com. Wah Joo Seng can assemble, deliver and supply our hose assemblies with flanges!  Check out our flange collections here!

References:

Hardhat Engineer.

Wermarc.

Wikimedia.

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Common Types of Reinforcements Found in Hoses

 

Most hoses are made up of three elements: tube, reinforcement and cover. Hose reinforcement is built in between hose tube and cover and act as a control for:

·         Axial and radial forces Pressure capabilities· Kink resistance

·         Strength and durability

·         Longevity

·         Flexibility

Hose reinforcement can come in different materials such as textile, plastic, metal or the combination of them.  It also has different shapes and forms such as braided or spiraled wire, braided or spiraled textile, cable and metal or plastic helix depending on requirements.

Pile of Thread.jpg
Some common reinforcements types:
1.       Yarn and Textile

Yarn Reinforcement

Figure 1 Picture of yarn-reinforced PVC hose.

Yarn reinforcement is built with fiber. Some example of the fiber used are aramid, cotton, glass, nylon, polyester etc. The yarn will then be weaved and built onto the hose to provide support
2.      Helical Spring

Plastic Helical Spring

Figure 2 Picture of Plastic helical Spring Reinforced Hose

Metal Helical Reinforcement

Figure 3 Picture of Metal Spring Wire Reinforced Hose

Helical spring wire uses a long wire that is helically wrapped into the hose. The wire can come from either plastic or metal such as PVC, Stainless Steel, etc.
3.      Piles of Steel Wire Cords

Piles of Steel Reinforcement

Figure 4 Picture of Piles of steel wire cords reinforcements

Plies of weaved wire cord is built into the hose creating multiple layers of reinforcement.
4.      Metallic Braids

Metallic Braid

Figure 5 Metallic Braid Reinforcement

Several steel wires are interwoven to form metallic braid. The braid will then coat the tube and give additional strength and protection. Metallic braid can come in different materials from bronze, stainless steel etc.
5.      Combination

Combination

Figure 6 Picture of Hose with Yarn and Spring Helix Reinforcement

Some hoses use and combine multiple reinforcements to create hoses with an improved property. The picture on the left shows a hose with both yarn and helix wire reinforcement.
6.      No Reinforcements

No Reinforcement

Figure 7 Non-Reinforced Hose

The Left picture shows a non-reinforced hose made from Silicone. This type of hose uses no reinforcement. Examples: Tubing.

To find out more about the right selection for you, please follow us on facebook where you will receive our updates. Alternatively, you can speak to us at kingflex@wahjooseng.com or +65 2983211